On the Portuguese island of Madeira (just north of the Canary islands, more towards Portugal) exists a cavaquinho, with the name braguinha (or braguinã) – in fact “little Braga” (see viola de Braga). It is also called machete, or machete de Braga. It seems to have arrived on the island from Portugal in 1854 and was taken to Hawaii in 1879, where it became the ukulele (but with the tuning of the rajão). Its construction is like a small guitar, with a flat back and 4 metal strings. The pegs are friction pegs from the back or tuning machines. Sometimes the top half of the front is covered with different wood, like a scratch plate, but often it looks like a smaller rajão. This instrument first went to Madeira (in 1854, to become the braguinha) and then on to Hawaii (in 1879) to become the ukulele. The tuning of the 4 metal strings is d’ g’ b’ d” (the banjo tuning). It is played by strumming chords, to accompany folk singing.